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the history of the inca empire
1200. An indigenous tribe moved into the mountains and established an empire;
This tribe is called Inca.
Cusco is now an archaeological dream.
The excavation found the ruins of buildings and cities;
Cultural relics have been drawn and photographed as evidence.
The burial mound was discovered, and the naturally formed mound was also discovered, which changed the landscape and parts of the Inca world for thousands of years.
Before arriving in the mountains, the Incas lived a nomadic lifestyle.
They\'re part of the Hunter.
Moving from one place to another looking for animals to hunt and eat plants to gather the collecting society, but the Incas are not the only tribes that enter the mountains, nor are they the only ones who settled there.
The Cuzco Valley is believed to have settled for nearly 3,000 years before the Incas arrived. Around 2,000 B. C.
A little-known tribe named Chevrolet settled down and called the Valley home.
Towns and villages were born, and from what they left behind, we knew that their citizens were farming and carving.
The carving they left opened a window for the past.
Stone buildings and temples were discovered, all of which are decorated with images of snakes, birds and big cats roaming the area.
Mochka, another civilization, mochka, flourished between the years of A. D 100 to 800.
The relics they left describe the customs of the tribe.
Pots unearthed in various archaeological excavations are depicted as pictures of everyday life, forming the shape of animals and humans.
These paintings enable us to observe the customs of civilization from a distance.
The Incas land entered the mountainous area in the fourth quarter, and it took only a few hundred years to conquer the neighboring people and extend from the current border of northern Ecuador to the modern city of Santiago in Chile.
Under the control of Inca, 2,100 miles of land and nearly 6 million conquered civilizations.
The Inca territory was divided into four quarters on average, so it was named Tahuantinsuyu, the land of four quarters.
It is divided into several quarters, making it easier to manage.
The tribes conquered by the Incas are not always submissive, although many of them have become allies of the Incas, choosing to join instead of fighting against the forces that are becoming powerful empires.
Over the years, there have been 12 emperors in Inca.
Manko Paka, the first Indian ruler, claimed that the Sun God was his father.
Legend has it that his wife, mother Ocllo, is called the daughter of the moon;
In fact, she is his sister.
Manco Capac lives in a luxurious palace decorated in gold;
His wife has the same magnificent palace.
As the first wife, mother Ocllo won the honorary title of Coya.
The Incas are polygamous and have many children, but only the sons of Koya can inherit the kingdom.
Unlike many kingdoms, the eldest son is not necessarily in power after his father\'s death.
A young son can inherit the kingdom. The decision is decided by the Emperor.
Manco Capac began the tradition of palace construction, with each emperor setting up his own palace in Cusco to celebrate their rule.
The palace is decorated with complex wall hanging;
They have bathhouses, temples and terraces.
Surrounded by trees and gardens, the air is filled with the fragrance of flowers and herbs.
The city of CuzcoThe Cuzco was the first big city in Inca, and the top eight Inca emperors used the city as the center of their government.
Over time, the government became stronger, and the law became more stringent as the boundaries of the empire expanded.
The conquered tribes were ruled by Inca;
Their culture faces extinction, but their leaders, local chiefs, are often allowed to remain in power.
The sons of these chiefs are usually held hostage and considered important protected prisoners in Cusco.
Hope that the hostages will be completely assimilated by Inca culture during their stay;
It was also hoped that the situation would ensure the behavior of the hostage father.
The defeated tribes are expected to adapt to the lifestyle of the Incas.
Inca religion becomes the main religion (
The conquered person is allowed to keep his own God, but must worship the Sun God first)
Inca is the only form of communication and everyone is expected to follow the Inca law.
A group of people named mittees traveled in the area as cultural teachers.
Along the way, they visit and warn members of the conquered tribes not to rebel, teach them the Inca culture, and teach them new forms of agriculture to increase crop production.
Between 1438 and 1471, the ninth Inca emperor, Pachakuti Inca, began an expedition on the coast of South America.
Along the way, he fought a series of battles with his men.
Conquered one city after another and the Empire grew stronger.
Many tribes on the route of destruction choose to align with the invaders instead of fighting.
The ruler or Emperor of Inca is called Sapa Inca.
His lawyers include four apus, usually family members, who are responsible for the day-to-day management of the four quarters of the kingdom\'s division.
There are many officers under Apus;
The governor supervises the provincial capital of curacas (local rulers)
Responsible for the governor and the head of the region (camayoc)
Answered the specific families and families they were assigned.
The laws of the Incas are often very strict.
Lying, drunkenness, and murder can all bring the same punishment, death.
Labor of results is the basic necessities of life.
The provinces pay tribute to the entire sampaja.
As a tribute to the rulers, food and goods will be delivered to Cuzco on a regular basis.
India and Canada also pay taxes.
Most taxpayers are over 25 years old.
All are people who work on state-owned land.
Please note that the state owns all the land.
Taxpayers must also serve the Inca government.
The service lasts for five years and may include time spent on army, mine or city improvement projects.
No need to pay tribute to engineers, architects and artisans.
They were taken care of by the government;
Food, clothing and daily needs are provided so that these people can pay full attention to the work at hand.
Artisans work for royalty and priests.
They made exquisite carvings, cloth and various items with gold and silver.
Craftsmen are often sent from part of the Empire as teachers to another part.
New workers need to acquire the required skills, although this industry is often passed on to young family members.
Nobles, government officials and women are exempt from taxes;
Although the state requires a woman from each family in Inca to weave cloth for the state every year.
The construction of civilized natural resources in the Cusco Valley has accumulated a lot of wealth.
Large quantities of silver, tin, copper and copper are mined.
Precious stones and gold are great treasures.
Metal workers use their fine-tuning skills to produce tools, weapons, decorations and jewelry, enabling the empire to trade other necessities that are not available and accumulate more wealth.
The beautiful city appeared, and each one was connected by the roads and bridges carefully planned by Inca engineers.
Only government officials Thymopentin for Injection to make it legal to get on the road because their original intention was to strengthen communication between the provinces and Cuzco.
To speed up the delivery of important information, the messenger is stationed every few miles.
The Incas laid more than 15,000 miles of roads in power.
Two of them ran through the Empire.
Stone banks were built on the Everglades, and bridges were hung on the canyons and rivers.
Bridges are rebuilt every year because they are hung with ropes.
The most important building in Inca was built with stone;
Adobe bricks for decoration and design.
The engineers planned the buildings using clay models;
The result is some of the best stones.
The masonry at that time.
The walls are tilted to the interior as the largest and heaviest stones are used at the bottom of the building.
Polishing and sanding is very careful to ensure a perfect match for each block, rarely doing more at the end of one block and where the other starts.
Houses are built by citizens, usually collective projects.
A neighbor helps another neighbor with any available resources;
Depending on where they live, grass, mud, stone or wood.
The city residents built their homes with stones.
Those who live on the coastline live in simple framed houses built of wood, with thatched roofs.
Houses near the forest built their homes with wood and sugar cane;
They also have thatch on the roof.
The other houses are made with adobe and are brightly colored and are color palettes for artists on the landscape.
Today, the Andes Mountains are still using adobe bricks made of mud and straw.
Tolls are required to enter a city.
Visitors will also need to state their business in the city before they can get permission to enter.
In terms of agriculture, most of the members of the Inca Empire are farmers, and it is not always an easy thing to do in the Cusco Valley.
The coastal climate is dry, so it is necessary to bring water into the area.
The irrigation system is designed to deliver the water available through the canal.
The water flows from the mountain stream into the stone canal, and when necessary, they physically organize the river and use it as a canal.
More mountainous areas have different problems in inland areas;
Water is not a problem.
Farmers on high slopes do not lack rain, they lack flat land to grow, they struggle with a cold climate that causes Frost in the early winter.
When the Spaniards reached 1532, 40 different types of food sources were planted in the Cusco Valley.
Farmers work for themselves and the country, send agricultural products to Sapa Inca for family use, save what is needed for family use, store excess crops in the national warehouse
To solve their problems, terraces were built on the hillside.
Walls are built to block the soil and prevent it from erosion.
The land was leveled, increasing the number of arable land.
It is said that the Incas worship six different gods.
The first and most important thing is the god of creation, villarcocha.
They believed that villarconcha had created everything in the universe and that he lived in heaven.
Virainia is a God, he is invisible.
Other Inca gods are; Inti (
Father of the sun and giver of life), Mama Quilla (Mother Moon), Pacha Mama (Mother Earth)
Mom, Kaya (
Mother of lakes and seas).
The stars are also worshipped as children of the sun and moon.
Members of the Inca community worship God in many different places.
A large temple was built in the city.
The royal family, the nobles and other government officials can repent and listen to the oracle there.
The priest sacrifices to God and acts as the contact person of God.
The priestess served by weaving cloth and preparing special food.
Ordinary citizens will worship in outdoor service places in the city center.
Holy places were also found near mountains and streams.
These holy places are called huacas, and people offer offerings to their gods, praying for good weather, good harvest, good health, or simply saying thank you.
The farmers will pour corn beer on the crops for Parcha\'s mother;
Travelers will add stones to apacita near Yamaguchi, hoping for a safe journey.
The Incas are fascinated by the moon, stars and visible planets, and they keep detailed and accurate astrological records.
Astronomers, usually priests, look carefully at the position of the sun, moon and Venus.
According to their observations, it seems that the Incas followed two separate calendars;
One is based on three ten days of a month, and the other is eight days of a week.
Numerous festivals and ceremonies mark the calendar of the Inca.
Most of these activities revolve around agriculture, with some marked by celebration and others marked by sacrifice.
The Inti raimi held every June is an important feast to commemorate the Sun God.
At this time, Inti made great sacrifices;
Many sacrifices are children.
The sowing season began in August, and 1,000 guinea pigs were sacrificed to celebrate when corn was first planted.
On October, The Incas prayed for rain.
November brings a feast of death, a special ceremony and commemoration.
The wrapped body was removed from the resting place in ceremonial fashion and marched through the street, something which we consider to be blasphemy;
The Incas regard this as an honor.
The Incas love music very much, which is another important part of banquets and festivals.
Music and dance are available for almost all religious ceremonies and public festivals.
The Inca dance uses actions to portray key events of their past.
They are another way for the imperial people to pass on the history and culture of Inca.
A special dance accompanied by bamboo flute and drumming tells the story of soldiers and farmers;
Other dances are dancing for God, demanding victory in battle, or providing fair weather for agriculture.
The death of burying loved ones is a time of both respect and respect.
The deceased was wrapped in a thin layer of cloth and then buried or buried.
The body also buried some personal belongings.
The Incas believe in life after death, and they believe in sending their loved ones to the afterlife with everything they need.
The food is discord, sealed, the warrior carries weapons with him, and occasionally the wife or servant who is killed and buried next to him attends the emperor\'s funeral.
Relatives wear black clothes from head to foot, and female family members cut their hair.
The banquet at the funeral was delicate;
The food was good and the music was good and everyone shared it in slow dance.
There are many funerals in Inca.
Graves may be in caves, or they may be built in rocks.
People living along the coastline are buried in underground graves.
Family members often go to the cemetery and leave food.
Men married around the age of 25;
At about the age of 20, women were treated as brides.
If the couple lives in Cuzco, the wedding is hosted by Sapa Inca.
Those outside the capital city will be married by local officials in their province.
After the official ceremony, the couple will return to the bride\'s home, where her father will hand her over to her husband.
The father put a sandals on her right foot, which symbolizes this.
The wedding will then be transferred to the groom\'s home and the bride will give it to her husband with her own special wedding dress.
Then there is feast and dance.
Children are trained in family work, which is what they need to be productive adults.
Both boys and girls celebrate the arrival of a ceremony.
When girls become women, they fast for three days.
Fasting will end with ritual washing, new \"adult\" clothing and formal naming.
This celebration is called the ceremony of quicochico.
The traditional adult ceremony of the boys was held at the age of 14. The celebration was marked by a ceremony called Hua Rochko.
The several-week warrachico ceremony has been held during the summer solstice.
The boys\' discipline, strength and skills were tested in a variety of different ways, and finally they got their adult names, weapons and gifts from their families.
The noble boys will go to teach.
Located in Cuzco, Yachahuasi is a place to receive education in religion, government, society and engineering.
The arrival of Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro, Spain, begins to explore South America at 1531.
As one of the first Europeans to see the Pacific Ocean, he was also one of the first to see the South American coastline, but the first time he saw the wealth of South America was to see a large raft.
The raft carries many things in history that have been sought, fought and died by men;
It carries silver, gold, precious stones and finely crafted cloth.
The messengers brought news to atawapa.
Last of the Inca emperor)
White men landed on their shores.
The messengers said in detail that these men are soldiers, they ride animals, and they carry sharp swords.
On 1532, a messenger from Atahuallpa was sent to visit the camp of Pizzaro, where he invited the adventurer and his hand down to visit the city of Cajamarca.
Pizzaro and 160 men set off soon for Cajamarca.
Some are hiking, some are riding.
The Spaniards crossed the Canyon nervously into Qualcomm Road.
The Inca battery is visible and someone is on duty.
It\'s an easy feat for Incas to surpass new people, but they don\'t.
On November 1532, Pizarro and his men finally reached the end of the mountain pass, where they face-to-face with the beautiful farmland of the cajamaka Valley.
They also found themselves staring at a place in a huge Inca army folding gazebo.
Atawapa was out of town when the Spaniard arrived, but he soon came to meet his visitors.
Dressed in beautifully embroidered clothes, and with his emerald collar, he sat on the throne and was carried into the city.
He arrived with his 5,000 people.
He was impressed by the Spaniard\'s horse, who knew that their presence allowed visitors to quickly cross the city, but he was not afraid.
That\'s what he should be.
What Atahuallpa did not know was that many Spaniards hid in the city that morning, and they had waited most of his day.
Sapa Inca was soon captured by the Spanish contingent.
One description is atawapa watching his nobles get killed and then helplessly watching his unarmed soldiers try to escape.
Another report said the soldiers had small weapons in their clothes.
At dusk, however, thousands of people died on the streets of the city.
In the morning, the Spaniards rode into the Inca camp.
They took all the gold they could find, and atawapa thought he had room for bargaining and gave them a gold room as long as they released him.
Pizarro promised, and atasupa kept his promise.
Gabriela no\' ton.
Within a few months, all the gold was melted and atahuapa was sentenced to death.
The last real Inca emperor was publicly strangled in the city square.
When the deed is completed, they start asking for Cuzco.
After the death of atawapa, the Inca civilization collapsed rapidly.
The Spaniards are not interested in their customs and traditions.
Land was quickly confiscated, new taxes were collected, and many Incas became slaves to labor in mines.
The Spaniards also brought other things without knowing it.
Diseases such as measles, smallpox and typhoid have reduced the population of Inca in large numbers.
The population, once a population of 6 million, fell to 2 million in 50 years.
Despite the decline of the great Inca Empire, many of its customs and traditions continue to this day.
At least 6 million people currently speak Inca.
Housing has not changed much, agriculture remains the same, terraces are still used, and the food they eat remains the same.
The only big change in the Inca crop is the wheat introduced by the Spanish.
Today\'s farmers still use the same type of hoes that existed in the earliest period;
Technology is still unheard.
The feast and Festival of God is celebrated, although many people are accompanied by Christian celebrations, which the Incas now believe.
Peruvian citizens, especially those living in mountainous areas, continue to use many of the same roads and bridges built by their ancestors.
The same tools continue to be used by Andean women.
When you really stop and think about it, time is like standing still.
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